To ensure that your roses are always beautiful and well bloomed, it is necessary to prune them. This is not a very complicated trade, as long as you know exactly how to perform it to get the expected profit. And there, it all depends on the type of rosebush. As we will explain to you, the time and the way to proceed differ according to the varieties.
Why prune your rosebush?
Here are three good reasons to prune your roses:
1. Pruning roses stimulates flower production
By removing the branches that are not in place, too fragile or damaged, the sap is concentrated in the buds that are worth it. Then they will be stronger and will give bigger and more beautiful roses.
2. Give your bush a nice shape
Roses tend to grow in a somewhat chaotic way, which is what gives them so much charm. The size offers the possibility of taming them a bit so that they start the season well. They are thus more aesthetic and grow better.
3. Pruning is necessary to keep them in good phytosanitary condition
Some roses are quite resistant to rose diseases, but others are much more fragile and susceptible. The development of fungi that attack your roses decreases if you let light and air circulate. It is a natural way to protect them from these microscopic fungi without having to treat them.
Do all roses need to be pruned?
To this question, we will rather answer that not all require the same size.
On climbing roses that grow tall and are often inaccessible, removing only as many dead branches as you can reach is sufficient.
For ground cover roses and bush roses, you clean them when you see they are too bushy.
Climbing roses, standard roses and bush roses are pruned very frequently. Otherwise, they would look too abundant, and above all they would give fewer flowers and the latter would be small in size.
When to prune roses?
The ideal period for pruning roses also depends on where you live.
the time for the main pruning of roses is in any case at the end of winter when there is no longer any risk of frost. Therefore, generally depending on the regions, of course, around February or March. However, you can do it until April. The less important maintenance pruning takes place in the fall. You have to wait for the vegetative rest, that is, once the leaves have fallen, rather around November. This is valid for remounting roses like the miniature rose, for non-remounting ones the period is different.
Never prune your roses on a freezing day!
Prune non -remountable rose bushes just after flowering, in August. The others are pruned in spring, then dead branches must be removed and aired, then they benefit from a maintenance pruning in autumn.
How to prune roses?
Preparation before pruning
You need a perfectly sterilized clipper with sharp blades. You clean it with rubbing alcohol before you start and after each use. Remember to cut the branches to the middle of the bud. Direct your tool well towards the part to be cut so as not to crush the branches.
The site itself
Size varies with different species.
· Pruning shrub roses, standard roses, ground cover roses, and weeping roses is done this way: keep three or four branches. Choose the ones with the largest diameter that are distributed at the base of the rosebush, at the grafting point. It is necessary to cut above a bud facing out. Remove other branches and dead wood.
· Pruning rose bushes must allow them the possibility of growing in height. It is necessary to take at least 3 or 4 stems between the largest ones and equalize them so that they reach approximately 40 to 50 cm. Then simply remove dead wood and other branches.
· Prune a climbing rose bush and climbing rose bush: you should know that the size of these species is almost non-existent in the first year. If it really is too abundant, take the 3 or 4 prettiest branches, and tie them to the support, as perfectly vertical as possible to let them grow quietly. If you cut off the tips of these stems, they will not grow.
How to maintain your roses?
maintenance of roses Above all, apart from pruning, it consists of some essential and relatively unrestrictive care: water them with fertilizer, dig them up and remove weeds, cut withered and wild flowers, protect them during the winter and treat them when necessary against parasites and diseases.
Irrigation and application of fertilizers
Water your roses frequently, twice a week, unless the soil is heavy, in which case once a week is enough. During this operation, aimed at the foot and not at the foliage. You add fertilizer to strengthen your roses, whatever the variety. Either you use the same fertilizer as before planting or you opt for a fertilizer richer in nitrogen, the choice is made depending on the state of your roses. After each bloom, fertilize.
Wildlings and withered flowers
Wild seedlings are shoots from the rootstock that can start from the neck of the rosebush, from the trunk, particularly in a stem or root roses. They must be removed so that they do not choke the plant.
Be careful not to confuse the wild with the greedy. The latter are shoots that come out of the graft and they are the ones that ensure the rejuvenation of the rosebush. You just have to pinch them: an operation that consists of cutting them to a height of 30 cm. Therefore, they can branch out and give the rose bush a more aesthetic shape.
Cut the end of the branches where the flowers have withered so you can have new ones. Take the opportunity to reduce your plant to a third of its height.
If you have a large flowered rose like the English rose then remove the corolla and about 10 cm of the branch just above a leaf with 5 leaflets.
For poliantha pink with cluster flowers, you simply cut the entire bouquet above the first full leaf.
The same is true for landscape pink. If you have a large hedge or bed, remove the top third with a hedge trimmer or dedicated shears.
Treat your roses
Preventive treatments are necessary to obtain beautiful roses. They are particularly effective in preventing cryptogamic diseases such as rust, marssonine, and powdery mildew. In the case of aphids, an insecticide should suffice. Once you have done the annual pruning, do a general hygiene treatment with what is called a copper-based Bordeaux mixture.
Treat powdery mildew, also called rosebush powdery mildew: what is powdery mildew? There are many white mushrooms that cover the leaves that are stained with a whitish gray layer. It mainly affects young shoots. Then it is necessary to treat your roses every 8-10 days by spraying them with a fungicide.
Treat marssonina: responsible for the appearance of black spots on the leaves and reddish mottling on the trunk. Without treatment, the leaves turn black and eventually fall off. Then it is necessary to spray a fungicide regularly, spacing each treatment 8 to 10 days apart.
Treat rust: as soon as the undersides of the leaves begin to be covered with rust-colored pustules, simply spray a fungicide every 8 to 10 days.
Treat Aphids: Hunt for aphids which are real pests for this plant. It begins by attacking young shoots and then damages all vegetation. An insecticide is then used, preferably systemic, which is sprayed twice, leaving an interval of ten days. You can also use grandmother’s remedies, such as coffee grounds or others, which also work well.
Protecting your roses in winter is necessary
In the fall, if you mount your roses, you prevent the roots from freezing in winter. It is simply a matter of putting more soil (creating a mound) to cover the grafting point which is very sensitive to frost. To keep this mound, put protection on it. If your roses are young or you live in a very cold region, add a winter veil. It is aerated, it lets the water pass so that the plant can breathe. It is placed from the bottom of the rose bush to the top of the branches.
Cut a rosebush
If you want to cut a rosebush, here is the procedure to follow. The cuttings are made between August and October. All varieties can be taken from cuttings, however, some are easier than others. Here are the different steps:
· Take several young, deflowered branches below a full leaf. The selected branches should have few leaves and shoots, it is also necessary to check that they are not damaged or diseased.
· Remove the top of the stem where the wilted flowers are, leaving the last two leaves at the top of the stem to reduce evaporation.
· Cut the stems of the rose bush at an angle above a node, ideally the cuttings should be approximately 10-20cm.
Application of hormones in powder and sowing
Leave the stems in water for a few minutes, and apply a rooting hormone to the part to be planted. Place them in the ground or in a pot, in light potting soil and sand.
Maintenance of the necessary humidity
To promote the development of your cuttings, place them in a greenhouse or on a terrace, under a bell. Avoid drafts and direct sunlight. After fifteen days the eyes will appear and it will be time to remove the protection. If you put them in a pot, you will see that the roots begin to come out.
Roots and shoots begin to appear in April-May, so transplant your cuttings into the ground wherever you want and leave them alone.
Now that you know how to cut, prune and care for your roses, these pretty flowers will grace your garden.